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YYPTSKY招财蟾蜍游戏【qzsong.cn】为您提供集团最新官方网站,更高级的VIP服务体验,更多的优惠活动,更快速的存取款时间,专属美女客服一对一服务,赶快注册游戏吧。随州步严崩广告传媒有限公司(原克孜勒苏云缸厩广告传媒有限公司)成立于1991年,占地面积41245平方米,ag视讯安卓版注册其中生产厂房占地1480平方米,仓库面积占地1332平方米。固定资产7263万元,流动资产7261万元,干部职工共359人,工程技术人员37人。YYPTSKY招财蟾蜍游戏ByFengFeiLiangYangchun,,-YearPlanPeriodSincetheStateCouncilpromulgatedthereformplanofelectricpowersystemin2002,theelectricpowersystemreforminChinahasmademuchprogress,whichcanbedescribedasthefollowing:therapidgrowthinthepowersupplyandgridconstructionhaseffectivelyrelievedthepowershortage;theseparationofthepowerplantandpowergridhashelpedcreateamarketpatternfavorableforintroducingafaircompetitiontotheelectricitygenerationside;theestablishmentoftheindependentregulatorfortheelectricityindustryindicatesabasicsteptowardamodernregulatorysystem;thepilotworkabouttheelectricitymarkethasbeendoneinsomeareastotesttheapplicabilityofdifferentmarketsysteminChina(evenindifferentareas);theissuanceoftheelectricitypricereformplan,theproblemsarisinginthereformareequallyprominent,whichmainlyinclude:First,thetransformationofgovernmentfunctionlagsbehind,themanagementsystemisnotyetrationalized,and,governmentfunctionhasnotbeenfulfilled,authorityabsenceandoversteppingcoexist,theproblemof"multi-levelmanagement"isstillobvious,thediscretionarypoweroftheadministrationorganizationistoostrong,andanopen,,,tosolvetheproblemofpowershortageinChinaassoonaspossible,thestateover-emphasizedpowersupply,"prioritizingenergyconservation",theimmediowergri,,suchaslackinginvestmentincentives,asthestabilityofthestaffwillbegrea,nosubstantialprogresshaseverbeenattainedinthereformofkeysectors,rombeingrealized,a,thelegislationfortheelectricit,interestedpartiesmaydistortoriginaldirectionofthereform,,theleadingteamwhichwassetupattheearlystageofthereformcannotplayitsduerole,whichhaoductionofcompetitionmechanismintotheelectricityindustrydemandstheclarificationofthreefundamentalquestions:first,howtomatchthecompetitionmechanismwithtechnologicalandeconomiccharacteristicsoftheindustry;second,howtodealwiththerelationsbetweencompetitionanddevelopment;third,howtodealw,ithasbeendebatedforlongthatthecompetitionmechanismmusttakely,,roughlybreakingmonopolyandintroducingcompetitionintothewholetransmissionanddi:first,whetherthecompetitionoptimizesresourcesdistribution;second,whethertheregulatorcankeepaneffectivecontroloverthegridcompanies;third,,basedoncurrentadministrativesystemandmarketcondition,forcingtheseparationofthepowerplantandthegridwillonlyreplace"bigmonopolies"with"smallmonopolies".Whatisworse,thegridsectorlosesnotonlyeconomyofscope(verticalmonopolyisnotallowed),,thegridcannotberash,,overemphasisonunrearlieristhelackofinvestmentincent,theStateofCaliforniaoftheUnitedStatesalteredthemarketpatternoftotal-quantityreal-timebiddingandtheBritaingover,theyseektostrikeabalancebetweenmarketcompetiti,thereformgoalmustbedifferentiatedfromthatofthesecountries,whichmeanswemustpromotecompetitionanddevelopmentasdualgoalsofthereform,enhanceefficiencythroughcompetitionandthencreateaneffectiveincentivemechanism,twocrucialproblemsmustbeaddressed:first,whichmarketpatternshouldweadopt,total-quantitybiddingorpartial-quantitybiddingSecond,whichapproachshouldbeadoptedintheregulationofelectricitypricestoensurethatthepowergridcompaniesarewillingandhavethecapacitytomakeinvestmentinthelongrunThird,itisnecesssuewhenthemonopolizedgridisconcerned,,revolutionarychangesshouldtakeplaceinthescopeofregulation(alsocalledaregulationrevolution),fromtraditionaleconomicregulationtosocialregulation,whichmayincludeenvironment,security,quality,marketstructure(incaseofthemisuseofmarketpower)andresourcesefficiencies....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.Datasource:StatisticsalmanacofJiangsuProvinceoverth,WuxiandChangzhou,Suzhouhasthelargestarea,,Suzhouhasbeguntoexceedtheothersevencitiessince1990s,anddevelopedrapidlyt,GDPofSuzhou()wasalittlehigherthanthatofWuxi().However,in2005,GDPofSuzhou()wasalmostthesumofthatofWuxi()andChangzhou().ThepercapitaGDPofSuzhouin1999was23,595yuan,lessthan26,,itreached54,165yuan,exceedingthatof50,,,;in2005,,,sincetheendofthe1990s,Suzhouhasalsoplayedaleadingroleinimportandexportvolume,cont,theimportandexportvolumeofSuzhoucitytoppedUS$,morethanthatoftheothersevencities;thecontractedforeigncapitalofSuzhouwasUS$,aboutthatofWuxi,ChangzhouandNanjing;thevolumeofforeigninvestmentactuallyusedamountedtoUS$,aboutthesumofWuxi,Changzhou,mentofSuzhouTherapidtransitionofSuzhoufromaconsumptndofthe1960s,actuallystartedinthe1970sanddevelopedinthe1980sthroughtheutilization"modelofdevelopmentinsouthernJiangsu""export-orientedeconomy",thevigorousintroductionofforeigncapitalandthedevelopmentofprivateeconomy,,th,Suzhouhasanumberofdevelopmentzones,includingfivenationaldevelopmentzonesrepresentedbySuzhouIndustrialPark,SuzhouNationalNewHi-TechIndustrialDevelopmentZoneandKunshanEconomicTechnologyDevelopmentZone,elevenprovincialdevelopmentzones,sixexportprocessingzones,twobondedlogisticscenters(typeB),andonebondedlogisticsparklinkingdevelopmentzonesandport(Table2).pmentzonesconstituteimporta,themaineconomicindexesofthedevelopmentzonesinSuzhouhavereachedanannualgrowthrateofover40%,onestothewholecity:%ofthecitysarea,%oftheGDP,60%oftheindustrialaddedvalue,%%oftheforeigntradeexportvolumeofSuzhoucity....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.。

    ——AnalysisBasedontheInputOutputTableofChinafrom1987to2002ByLiShantong,DepartmentofDevelopmentStrategyandRegionalEconomyofDRCGaoChuansheng(TsinghuaUniversity)ResearchReport034,2007Producerserviceshavebecomethefocusofcurrentindustrialinternationalcompetitionandmajorvalue-addedandprofitpointintheglobalvaluechains(GVC).TheenhancementoftheirdevelopmentwillbetheimportantorientationforfacilitatingChina,someproblemsChinaseconomyhasencountered,suchasthechangeofextensivegrowthandlackofkeytechnologyandworld-famousbrandsinindustry,havetobesolvedthroughthedevelopmentandupgradingofproducerservices;ontheotherhand,thecurrenteconomydevelopmentpatterndominatedbymanufacturingindustrywithoutthesupportofacompleteandfunctionalproducerservicessystem,ha,r,basedontheinputoutputtableofChinafrom1987to2002,thisarticledefinesthespecificconnotationofproducerservicesinChina,evaluatesitsdevelopmentlevelandactualgrowthrate,andfurtheranalyzesitsinternalstructure,inanattempttoprovidebasicprinciplestoboostthetransitionandupgradingofChina(hereinaftermentionedasPS),oppositetoconsumerservicesthatdirectlysatisfytheultimateconsumptionneeds,areacategoryofservicesbasedonservicefunctions1,referringto"thoseservicesallocatedforothercommodityproducersandserviceprovidersastheintermediateinput"(GrubelWalker,1989),ultsofdomesticandforeignscholars,wedivideproducerservicesintotwodifferentapproaches:(1)inanarrowsense,wheretheterm"producerservices"aremostfrequentlyused,itreferstothoseservicesprovidedfortheprimary,secondaryandtertiaryindustriesasanintermediateinput,namely,the"producers"thatPSaimedatrefertoallindustries,heinputoutputdiagram,namely,thehorizontalpartusedforvariousindustriesasanintermediateinput;(2)inabroadsense,allservicesnotdedicatedtosatisfytheultimateconsumptionneedsofconsumersareproducerservices,wherethe"producers"beingsatisfiedincludenotonlyallindustries,butalsogovernment,toftheinputoutputdiagram,namely,thehorizontaldifferenceofthetotalou,therearetwoformsofproducerservices:oneisthenon-independentformthathasnotbeenmarketizedbutinteriorizedinindustriesor(governmentalornon-governmental)bodies,theotheristheindependentformthathasundergonetheprocessofexternalizationandmarketization,namely,thePSindustry,"producerservices":,alargemajorityofindustriesprovideconsumerservicesandproducerservicesatthesametime,raisingtheconfusionthatwhichcategorytheybelongto;,typicalproducerservicesoutsideChinagenerallyincludefinancing,insurance,realestateandbusinessservices(hereinaftermentionedasFIRE).Somedomesticscholarsalsoregardrealestateasoneoftheproducerservices,whichcontradictstheuniquerealityofChina,whererealestatemainlysatisfiesthehabitationneedsofresidentscurrently,ratherthanthe,realestateindevelopedcountriesismainlyusedforrent,accountingforahighpercentageofinvestmentneeds;ersintermediateneedsforservices,,,ifatradeprovidesbothproducerandconsumerservices,,twoindicesareintroduced,namely"theintermediateuserate"and"thenon-residentultimateconsumptionrate",andtheanalysisofinput/tedontheintermediateuseoftheprimary,snupby,"theintermediateuserate"isappropriateforthedefinitionofthePSindustryinitsnarrowsense,while"thenon-residentultimateconsumptionrate"–thePSindustryhasanindexhigherthantheaverage,"Theintermediateuserate"andChinasPSindustryinitsnarrowsenseDefinedby"theintermediateuserate",%,%oftheoutputofserv,s,suchasurbanpublictransportation,restaurants,realestate,tourism,residentservicesandotherservices,education,sanitation,socialsecurityandwelfare,culture,arts,andbroadcasting,moviesandTV,sports,%,,forthereasonslikedatagatheringandthecurrentsituationoftheexpendituresubjectinChina,theintermediateuseratescalculatedforsomeindustries,suchasscientificresearch,professionaltechnologyandothertechnicalservices,managementofenvironmentalresourcesandpublicestablishment,publicmanagementandsocialorganizationandetc.,arenotsuitabletodecidewhichcategorytheyshouldbelongto,thus"thenon-residentultimateconsumptionrate"ishelpful....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.*Aphaseresearchresultof"InteractiveRelationshipbetweenProducerServicesandManufacturingUpgradinginChina",amajorprojectofCIDEG2006ofTsinghuaUniversity,1966andthendevelopedrespectivelybyBrowningSingelmannin1975andSingelmannin1978.Source:,theChineseleadingenterp,aforeignleadingenterprisegenerallyspentseveraldozenbillionyuanonRD,,suchasHuaweiandZTE,lesrevenueonRD,,HuaweiandZTEhaveasmanyRDpersonnelastheforeignleadingenterprisesdo,about10,000~20,,intermsoftheproportionofRDpersonneltototalcorporateemployees,,,namelythepercapitaRDspendingofaforeignleadingenterpriseandthepercapitaRDspendingofitsRDpersonnel,aforeignleadingenterpriseare5~~6timesthecostofaChineseenterprise,thegapbetweentheCems,includingthegloballa,byestablishingtheirsubsidiariesinthemaincommunicationsRDbasesaroun,mostoftheirRDinstitutionshaveintroducedtheCMM(capacitymaturitymodel)andIPD(integratedproductdevelopment),,theChineseleadingenterprisessu,ZTEhasestablishedapersonnelincentivemechanism,whichisresult-orientedandfeaturesthetwo-dimensionalevaluationbasedonperformanceandvalue,themandatorydistributionofevaluat,,whichisorientedtowardkeytechnologies,,andtheirRDeva,theCh,andtheirevaluationovationtechnologies,ovationtechnologiesbyrelyingonthe"low-costandqualityservices"andby,theChineseenterpriseshaveyett,irstacquirepatentrightsfortheirleadingtechnologiesandembedtheirtechnologicalpatentsinthetechnologicalstandardsbeforerelyingonthepowerfulmarketforcestopromotetheinternatioationandinmarketforces,theyarestillunabletoestablishthemarketizationcapacitiesfortheleadingtechnologies.10-200米ZhangChenghui,,hecapitalmarketisonethathasauniversallyharmfulimpactonaspecificcate,itissufficienttocauseachainreactiontomultiplemarketplayers,plungethemintooperationyers(alsocalledanoperationalrisk).Theimpactofthisriskisgenerallylimitedtotheindividualcommoditiesofthecapitalmarketortotheindividualmarketplayers,,ttwithoutasoundsystemtendsverymuchtoproduceasystemrisk,whenacapitalmarketistoosmallandisopentointernationalcapital,,,theinvestorswil,,regulationwillbecomemoredifficultbecausefinancnsactionsInrecentyears,bubbleeconomsbubbleeconomythatbeganint“neweconomy”bubbleinthe1999~2000persinThailand,,,thedemandingandsupplyingpartiesgeneratations,marketdemandwilldrasticallyincreaseratherthanreducebecauseofrisingpricesandaslongasthereisanexpectation,alandindustrialsector,rktechnologiesAlongwiththemassiveuseofcomputertechnology,communicationstechnology,networktechnologyandothernewtechnologiesinthefinancialindustry,thetradingsy,,,,,anerroneousdataentryontheHongKongFuturesMarketnearlycausedalossofUS$,2005,,redanabnormalpricefluctuationontheTokyoStockMarket,,virus,Trojanprogramandothertechnicalmeanstoattackthesystemsandpersonalmainframesofthesecuritiesmanagementinstitutions,securitiescompaniesandlistedco,t,themoreprecisionaninstrumentis,,mentsystemisimperfectandunreliable,,2005,amalfunctionofthetradin,2006,thestockexchangehadnoalternativebuttoterminatethetrading20minutesearliertopreventasystemcrashb,peoplebegintoquestionthesecurityofelectronicsystems.。

    银河优越会国际注册手机版ostedtheirinnovationcapacity,productsdevelopmentandprovision,buttheusindustrialsectors,,textileprod,thehigh-endmarketofterminalproductsisstilldominatedbyfore,thehigh-en,thehigh-endp,,from41,500piecesin1990to476,,theproportionofpatentapplicationsbyenterpriseswentupfrom16%in1990to33%,,’,anaverageannualgrowthofmorethan20%.%%,ofwhichenterprisesaccountedfor60%.%,,theRDspendingbytypicalChineseenterprisesinsomeindustriesisonlyone-fifthorone-tenthoftheamountspentbymajorforeigncounterparts,,,39percentofthe23,267largeand,,theenterprisesarestillweakintheircapacitiestomanageRDactivitiesandtointegrateinternalandexternalinnovationnetworksandintheirorganizationalandmanagementcapacitiestocoverthewholevaluechainofinnovation,ounterpartsint,suchasthesteelandpetrochemicalindustries,haveafairlystrongcapacityfortechnologicalinnovationandalsoafairlystrongoverallstrength;theindustries,suchasthecommunicationsequipmentindustry,haveafairlystrongcapacityfortechnologicalinnovationandanaveragelevelofoverallstrength;theindustries,suchastheindustriesproducingpower-generatingequipmentandelectronicITterminals(TV,PC),haveanaverageorstrongercapacityfortechnologicalinnovation(itvariesaccordingtodifferentproducts)andcertainoverallstrength;theindustries,suchastheLCDindustry,havecertaintechnologicalcapacitybuttheiroverallenterprisestrengthisweak;intheindustriessuchastheautoindustry,therepresentativeenterprisesstillhavetoenhancetheirtechnologicalcapacity,,,theLCDenterprisesalreadypossesscertain,theydonothaveagreatoverallstrengthandechnologieseasily,ldforstartingcapitalintheearlystageofdevelopment,theenterpriseshavemoreopportuningcapitalstillfacegndwheremarketsarelargeandgrowfaster,,theautoindustryisdominatedbyjoint-ventureenterprises;althoughtheindustryhasbeengrowingfast,,mainlyserveslargecustomersandhasahightechnologicalthreshold,,theearly-co,whichhelpstheearly-comingenterpr,novationcapacities,thestatusandupgradingofenyPeterXiong,-’sdefinitionorbasedonthestudiesofinnovationprocess,boththialinnovationisco(science,technology,productionandmarket)thatcoverthevaluechai,itisalsosubjecttotheinfluence,,thekeyplayersininnovationmustbeabletoeffectivelyidentifydirections,organizeresources,continuetoinvest,chnologicalinnovationandhavediverseresources,namelythemotivationandcapacityforsustainedinnovation,theyarethekeyplayersininnovationinamarketeconomy....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.,andconsumptiongrewsteadilyIn2005,theper-capitadisposableincomeofurbanresidentswas10,493yuanafterdeductingthepricefactor,%;per-capitacashincomeoffarmerswas3,255yuan,%yearonyearafterdeductingthepricefactor,,,%%,%.,andtheex-factorypricesloweddownIn2005,theconsumerpriceindexofresidents(CPI)%yearonyear,,,%%respectivelyyearonyearandwerethemainfactorsdrivinguptheCPI;thepricesofentertainment,education,%,%,%yearonyear(inMay,%),thepurchasepriceofrawmaterials,%,althoughtherisingratesloweddownsomewhatfromthatofthepreviousyear,,%yearonyear,%,,farmers’incomegrew,%.,%overthepreviousyear;,%.2005,,%yearonyear,%%.,,,,%rfactorsintoconsideration,ourbasicconclusionsare:Then"doublestable"policiesoffiscalandmonetarypoliciesimplementedbythecentralgovernmentandtheachievementsmadeinsolvingtheacuteproblemsintheeconomicoperations,,theeconomyhasthefeatureof"highyetsteady"growthrates,thegrowthratesofGDPandinvestmentareallhighandsteady,consumptiondemandgrowssteadily,’seconomyis,generallyspeaking,,butsomeproblemsdeserveourhighattention.,theachievementsineconomicdevelopmentsinceChinastartedits[1]"Extensive"and"lowefficiency""efficiency"and"pattern"ofChina,ChinahastoppedtheworldinattractingFDI,sgrowthpatternwasmerely"extensive"and"lowefficiency",whywouldforeigninvestmentnotstayinthe"intensive"and"highefficiency"g,conomyintheworld,andthemorethanhalfoftheexportswereproducedbyforeign-investedenterprises[2]ItshowsthatChinahastheadvantagesnotonlyinconsumption,"Extensive"and"lowefficiency"areindeedtheproblemsexistinginChina,objectiveandunbiasedunderstandingoverChina,,populationhasbroughtaboutwhateconomistscall"populationbonus".Inaddition,relativelycompleteindustrialsystemandfinetraditionsofthriftiness,diligenceandself-disciplinearethefavorablefactorsforthecountry,,Chinahasauniquecombinationofalltheseconditions,becauseithastheworld,thereformandopening-uphavetu"beggingwithagoldenbowl",China,wecouldintroducefunds,technology,supplychainandmarketingchannels,whichwelackedbefore,,thereformhassolvedtwobasicquestions,first,promotingtheflowoffactorsinalargerscopeandevenglobally;second,chscompetitiveadvantagesareseenobviouslyinthelowcostofsuchfactorsaslaborers,thegrowthpatternofChinaatthisstagecouldbesimplysummarizedasoneof"low-costcompetition".Third,asthe"dualstructure"existsintermsofsystemandefficiency,"low-efficiencycompetition"isnotenoughtocoverthewholepictureofthecountryitionisfullypracticed,andwhicharemainlycomposedofnon-stateenterprenterprisesareinnumbersbuthavenotbeensubstantiallyrestructured,thelow-costadvantagesarenotevident,,comparedwithalargeforeignpetrochemicalenterprise,alargeChineseenterprise,itsunit-output-valuewagecostisevenhigherthanthatofforeignenterprise.[3]Therefore,whenwespeakof"low-cost"competitiveadvantages,wem,"extensive"and"low-efficiency"problemsnotonlyexist,,withtheriseofpercapitaincomeandcostsinfactors,,icvitality,,Europe,Japan,SouthKoreaandChineseTaiwanProvinceintheChinesemainland(firstinthedevelopedcoastalarea).Theanswertothischallengeistohefuture10or20yearsandcontinuetokeepitscompetitiveedge....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.[1],whichismoreinclusive—notonlyincludingtheabove-mentionedideas,,"patternofgrowth"includesthe"wayofgrowth"andrelevantmeanings.[2]Accordingtothe"2005WhitePaper"ofAmericanChamberofCommerce,morethan60%oftheexportsfromChinatotheUnitedStatescamefromforeign-investedenterprises.[3]Accordingtothelistoftheworldstop500enterprisesin2004publishedbytheFortunemagazine,%ofthatofBP,%.Thepercapit%%ofthebank.YYPTSKY招财蟾蜍游戏重合同守信誉企业市级明星企业,XiaoJunyan,,2005TherehasbeenmuchdiscussionaboutthegoalsofthereformoftheAgriculturalDevelopmentBankofChina(ADBC).Thegoalscouldbeapproximatelysummarizedasfollows:firstly,keepingthecurrentorganizationofthebank,adjustingitsfunctionsandexpandingitsbusinessscopefromthecurrentsupportoncirculationofgrainandcottontootherfields;secondly,mergingwiththegrass-rootsagenciesoftheAgriculturalBankofChinaandtheRuralCreditCooperativetoestablisha"RuralRegionalDevelopmentBank";thirdly,mergingwiththeNationalDevelopmentBankortheAgriculturalBankofChina;fourthly,transferringthebusinessofgrain,cottonandedibleoiltotheotherpolicybanksandturningitintoadevelopmentbankfortheunder-developedregions;fifthly,transferringthebusinessofgrain,cottonandedibleoiltotheotherpolicybanksandsettinguparuralcreditguaranteebam,theAgriculturalDevelopmentBankhasgraduallygoneintoadilemma:themarketizationofgraincirculationhasbeenspedup;thepolicy-basedpurchaseofgrainandstoragehasbeenshrunk;therehasbeenahugesuspenseaccountduetodeficitaccumulatedinthepastyearsandmisappropriatedfunds;asthebusinessofADBChasdwindled,anditspositionasapolicybankhasbeenlowered,,themainproblemsofADBCare:"statebankfortheprocurementofgrain,cottonandedibleoil",ADBC[1]isresponsibleforguaranteeingthesafetyofloans,,peoplefromoutside(includingthemacrocontroldecision-makers)’sstatisticsshowthatbytheendof2001,th,thegrainpurchaseandreservepolicyhasseentwistsandturns,,anagement,,(thefiscalyearforgrainsectorisApriltoMarchofthefollowingyear),’,which,;theother80billionyuanofmisappropriatedfundswasaresultofADBC’sviolationoftheStateCouncilregulations,grantingloansforgrain-tradingfirmstobuycarsandotherconsumergoods,buildhouses,startsidelinebusinesses,,thebank’sbusinesssh,itsscopeofservicehasbeenverynarrow,onlycoveringtheprocurementofgrain,,grainandedibleoilmakeupmorethan80%whilecottononlyaccountsfor15%.,ADBCcanhardlypipwithinthegrainsectorInthepastdecade,thecentralgovernmenthasdemandedthatabalancebemaintainedbetweengrainsecurityandgrainsupplyanddemand,whichshouldbecoveredbya"provincialgovernorresponsibilitysystem".,whichhasadoptedasystemcenteredonadministrativeplanningandsupportedbyaguaranteeofmonopolizedoperationrightandfunds(loansandsubsidies).Thenagamerelationshiphasbeenformedbetweenthecentralgovernmentandtheothergrain-relatedinterestparties(localgovernments,state-ownedgraintradingsystemandthebank).Otheri:firstly,sufficientfundsmustbeofferedtotheimplementationofgrainprocurementandreserveplan,otherwiseyouarenotattachingenoughimportancetoagriculture,farmers’protectionandstabilityofthegrainmarket;secondly,localgovernments,,themoreloansandsubsidieswillbegrantedandthemoreimportantlocalgovernments,,andmoredeficitsandfundmisappropriationarelikelytooccur;thirdly,thecentralgovernmentcanonlyrelyonlocalgovernments,state-o"hungerforfunds".Pressuredbythismechanism,thecentralgovernmenthasincreasedloansandsubsidiesandadoptalaissez-faireattitudeovertheloopholesthathavecausedmajorlosses.ZhangLiqun,,PlannedEconomyandIndustrialTa,thebasicfeatureofthi,itemphasizedthedtributionofthismodeofgrowthtotheprocessofChina’,someeconomists[1]calculatedthelevelofall-factorproductivityofChina’sstate-ownedindustrialenterprisesforthe1953-1978period(asthestate-ownedsectorandtheindustrialsectorduringthisperiodconstitutedtheprincipalpartofthenationaleconomy,theaboveanalysiscanbeapproximatelyregardedasananalysisoftheoverallefficiencyofeconomicgrowth).Intheircalculation,thevalueofα(expressedastheweightsofdefinitecapitalandlaborinconcreteanalysis),industrialoutputvalueofallstate-ownedindependen,thecontributionratesofcapitalinput,laborinputandall-factorproductivity(definedastechnologicaladvanceinthisanalysis)wererespectively63percent,,,acturingsystem,toproduceatomicbombs,missiles,satellitesandothersophisticatedproducts,andtoran,itwouldbeunthinkableforChinatoreformandopenupandtocomprehe,theChinesepeoplelaidahistoricfoundationfortheircountry’sindependencean,,economistsandeconomicworkersbegantoseeandanalyzethedrawbacksofthepla,theyintroducedtheconceptsof"extensionalgrowth"and"intensionalgrowth",theymadeafurtheranalysiso,theybegantonoticetheefficiencyofcapitalandlaboruseintheprocessofeconomicgrowthandformedtheconceptsofextensive,intensive,,thesefeaturesaredet;emphasizingthelaunchofnew,theeventualforcetochangethemodeofeconomicgrowthcharacterizedbytheplannedeconomyandindustrialtake-offwasfromthMovingfromthePlannedEconomytoaMarketEconomyandAdjustinedeconomytoamarketeconomyintermsofeconomicsystemandthegrowingdependenceonmarketmechanismstorectifythestructureofsocialproductionarisadjustmentofthestructureofproductionwerearesultoftheaccumulatedcontradictionsbetweenth,’sreformandopeningup,theincreaseinproductivityarisingfromadvancesinsystem,,theincreaseinefficiencyfromtheperspectivesofthecom,thecontributionrateofChina’,,economistsmadedeeperdiscussionsonthemodeofeconomicgrowthinlightofthechronicproblemsassociatedwithChina’shandlingoftherelationshipbetweenspeedandefficiencyinitseconomicdevelopmentandinligh"quantitative"economyshouldbereplacedwitha"qualitative"economy,thatthe"speedmodeofeconomicgrowth"shouldbereplacedwitha"structuralmodeofgrowth",andthatthe"expending"modeofgrowthshouldbereplacedwithan"efficiency"China’owth,boththestructureofsystemandthestructureofproductionunderwentextremelydrasticchanges,andthattherectificationbymarketmechanismsoftherelationsbetweenproductionandhashighinput,ofthiionaleconomicsystemandmodeofdevelopment,whichrepresentedthefundamentalcauseforthemodeofeconomicgrowthtochangefurther.ByLvWei,,2006Anationalinnovationsystemiscomposedoftheinteractingorganizationsparticipatingintheinnovationaswellastheexternalenvironment(,thefinancialsystem,educationalsystem,competingmodesandcorporateoperatingmechanism)thathasabearingontheinnovativeactivities;theinteractionofthecomponentsa,aninnovationsystemisnotnecessarilyasystemartificiallydesignedandconstructed,sInnovationSystemComparedwiththemajorinnovativecountriesintheworld,theexternalenvironmentofChina,andthegovernmentplaysanimportantroleindistributingvariousresources;theproportionofstate-ownedeconomyisstillfairlyhigh,andtheoperatingmechanismofstate-ownedenterprises(SOEs)andpublicinstitutionsisdifferentfromthatoftheprivateenterprisesunderthemarketcompetition;themarketmechanismisyettomature,thecapitalmarket,inparticular,isstillintheinitialstageofdevelopment,lmanagementsystem,therestructuringreformhasagreaterbearingontheinnovationsystemanddec,Chinaisabigcountryinteseconomyhavethefollowingcharacteristics:first,abigcountryintermsofthesizeofeconomy,,ChinassizeofGDPranksthefourthintheworld,anditsper-capitalevelofincomeisverylow,,thedomesticmarketishuge,,;ontheotherhand,Chinaisthethirdlargesttradingpoweranditsdependenceonimportsandexportsexceeds60%(withitsdependenceonexportsbeing30%~40%).Chinaisalsooneoft,therefore,Chineseenterpriseshavetocompetewithth,,theregionalgapindevelopmentandincomeishugewiththefactthatthedeveloped,developingandunderdevelopedregionscoexist,andtherefore,,thedevelopmentofhigh,mediumandlow-techindustriesisfairlybalanced,,oftheincrementalvalueofthemanufacturingindustry,theaddedvaluefrommediumtechnologyindustriesaccountedfor60%,thevalueoflow-techindustriesaccountedforabout25%,andthevalueofhigh-techindustriesaccountedforabout14%.Thehigh-techindustriesinthedevelopedcountriesusuallyaccountforahigherpercentage,whileinthedevelop,ChinasRDinputintensityislowerthanthosedevelopedcountriescharacterizedbyknowledge-intensiveindustries,,anditstechnologicaldevelopmentischaracteri,however,,thegrowthrateofChina,%ofitsGDP,,theproportionofinvestmentinbasicresearchandappliedresearchmaintainastablegrowth,,theannualaveragegrowthrateofthegrossoutputvalueofhigh-techindustrieswasashighas24%,andin2004,theexportsofhigh-techproductsaccountedfor28%,internationallycompetitiveenterpriseshasemerged,,assimilative/,thevolumeofprocessingexportsexceeds50%,andoftheexportsbyhigh-techindustries,morethan90%novationpolicies,,financialallocationfromthecentralfinanceforscienceandtechnologynearlydoubledthatintheyear2000,%and4%(SeeTable1).Thegrowthoffiscalallocationbylocalgovernmentsforscienceandtechnologywassimilartothatbythecentralgovernment,andthetotalamountofallocationbylocalgovernmentswasabout60%oftheallocationbythecentralgovernment,anditwas65% CompositionofExpensesforScientificandTechnologicalActivities,theachievementsineconomicdevelopmentsinceChinastartedits[1]"Extensive"and"lowefficiency""efficiency"and"pattern"ofChina,ChinahastoppedtheworldinattractingFDI,sgrowthpatternwasmerely"extensive"and"lowefficiency",whywouldforeigninvestmentnotstayinthe"intensive"and"highefficiency"g,conomyintheworld,andthemorethanhalfoftheexportswereproducedbyforeign-investedenterprises[2]ItshowsthatChinahastheadvantagesnotonlyinconsumption,"Extensive"and"lowefficiency"areindeedtheproblemsexistinginChina,objectiveandunbiasedunderstandingoverChina,,populationhasbroughtaboutwhateconomistscall"populationbonus".Inaddition,relativelycompleteindustrialsystemandfinetraditionsofthriftiness,diligenceandself-disciplinearethefavorablefactorsforthecountry,,Chinahasauniquecombinationofalltheseconditions,becauseithastheworld,thereformandopening-uphavetu"beggingwithagoldenbowl",China,wecouldintroducefunds,technology,supplychainandmarketingchannels,whichwelackedbefore,,thereformhassolvedtwobasicquestions,first,promotingtheflowoffactorsinalargerscopeandevenglobally;second,chscompetitiveadvantagesareseenobviouslyinthelowcostofsuchfactorsaslaborers,thegrowthpatternofChinaatthisstagecouldbesimplysummarizedasoneof"low-costcompetition".Third,asthe"dualstructure"existsintermsofsystemandefficiency,"low-efficiencycompetition"isnotenoughtocoverthewholepictureofthecountryitionisfullypracticed,andwhicharemainlycomposedofnon-stateenterprenterprisesareinnumbersbuthavenotbeensubstantiallyrestructured,thelow-costadvantagesarenotevident,,comparedwithalargeforeignpetrochemicalenterprise,alargeChineseenterprise,itsunit-output-valuewagecostisevenhigherthanthatofforeignenterprise.[3]Therefore,whenwespeakof"low-cost"competitiveadvantages,wem,"extensive"and"low-efficiency"problemsnotonlyexist,,withtheriseofpercapitaincomeandcostsinfactors,,icvitality,,Europe,Japan,SouthKoreaandChineseTaiwanProvinceintheChinesemainland(firstinthedevelopedcoastalarea).Theanswertothischallengeistohefuture10or20yearsandcontinuetokeepitscompetitiveedge....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.[1],whichismoreinclusive—notonlyincludingtheabove-mentionedideas,,"patternofgrowth"includesthe"wayofgrowth"andrelevantmeanings.[2]Accordingtothe"2005WhitePaper"ofAmericanChamberofCommerce,morethan60%oftheexportsfromChinatotheUnitedStatescamefromforeign-investedenterprises.[3]Accordingtothelistoftheworldstop500enterprisesin2004publishedbytheFortunemagazine,%ofthatofBP,%.Thepercapit%%ofthebank.20108月通过ISO9001:2000国际质量管理。

    我公司以XiaoJunyan,,2005TherehasbeenmuchdiscussionaboutthegoalsofthereformoftheAgriculturalDevelopmentBankofChina(ADBC).Thegoalscouldbeapproximatelysummarizedasfollows:firstly,keepingthecurrentorganizationofthebank,adjustingitsfunctionsandexpandingitsbusinessscopefromthecurrentsupportoncirculationofgrainandcottontootherfields;secondly,mergingwiththegrass-rootsagenciesoftheAgriculturalBankofChinaandtheRuralCreditCooperativetoestablisha"RuralRegionalDevelopmentBank";thirdly,mergingwiththeNationalDevelopmentBankortheAgriculturalBankofChina;fourthly,transferringthebusinessofgrain,cottonandedibleoiltotheotherpolicybanksandturningitintoadevelopmentbankfortheunder-developedregions;fifthly,transferringthebusinessofgrain,cottonandedibleoiltotheotherpolicybanksandsettinguparuralcreditguaranteebam,theAgriculturalDevelopmentBankhasgraduallygoneintoadilemma:themarketizationofgraincirculationhasbeenspedup;thepolicy-basedpurchaseofgrainandstoragehasbeenshrunk;therehasbeenahugesuspenseaccountduetodeficitaccumulatedinthepastyearsandmisappropriatedfunds;asthebusinessofADBChasdwindled,anditspositionasapolicybankhasbeenlowered,,themainproblemsofADBCare:"statebankfortheprocurementofgrain,cottonandedibleoil",ADBC[1]isresponsibleforguaranteeingthesafetyofloans,,peoplefromoutside(includingthemacrocontroldecision-makers)’sstatisticsshowthatbytheendof2001,th,thegrainpurchaseandreservepolicyhasseentwistsandturns,,anagement,,(thefiscalyearforgrainsectorisApriltoMarchofthefollowingyear),’,which,;theother80billionyuanofmisappropriatedfundswasaresultofADBC’sviolationoftheStateCouncilregulations,grantingloansforgrain-tradingfirmstobuycarsandotherconsumergoods,buildhouses,startsidelinebusinesses,,thebank’sbusinesssh,itsscopeofservicehasbeenverynarrow,onlycoveringtheprocurementofgrain,,grainandedibleoilmakeupmorethan80%whilecottononlyaccountsfor15%.,ADBCcanhardlypipwithinthegrainsectorInthepastdecade,thecentralgovernmenthasdemandedthatabalancebemaintainedbetweengrainsecurityandgrainsupplyanddemand,whichshouldbecoveredbya"provincialgovernorresponsibilitysystem".,whichhasadoptedasystemcenteredonadministrativeplanningandsupportedbyaguaranteeofmonopolizedoperationrightandfunds(loansandsubsidies).Thenagamerelationshiphasbeenformedbetweenthecentralgovernmentandtheothergrain-relatedinterestparties(localgovernments,state-ownedgraintradingsystemandthebank).Otheri:firstly,sufficientfundsmustbeofferedtotheimplementationofgrainprocurementandreserveplan,otherwiseyouarenotattachingenoughimportancetoagriculture,farmers’protectionandstabilityofthegrainmarket;secondly,localgovernments,,themoreloansandsubsidieswillbegrantedandthemoreimportantlocalgovernments,,andmoredeficitsandfundmisappropriationarelikelytooccur;thirdly,thecentralgovernmentcanonlyrelyonlocalgovernments,state-o"hungerforfunds".Pressuredbythismechanism,thecentralgovernmenthasincreasedloansandsubsidiesandadoptalaissez-faireattitudeovertheloopholesthathavecausedmajorlosses.、YYPTSKY招财蟾蜍游戏用户至上E尊安卓app下载XiaoJunyan,,2005TherehasbeenmuchdiscussionaboutthegoalsofthereformoftheAgriculturalDevelopmentBankofChina(ADBC).Thegoalscouldbeapproximatelysummarizedasfollows:firstly,keepingthecurrentorganizationofthebank,adjustingitsfunctionsandexpandingitsbusinessscopefromthecurrentsupportoncirculationofgrainandcottontootherfields;secondly,mergingwiththegrass-rootsagenciesoftheAgriculturalBankofChinaandtheRuralCreditCooperativetoestablisha"RuralRegionalDevelopmentBank";thirdly,mergingwiththeNationalDevelopmentBankortheAgriculturalBankofChina;fourthly,transferringthebusinessofgrain,cottonandedibleoiltotheotherpolicybanksandturningitintoadevelopmentbankfortheunder-developedregions;fifthly,transferringthebusinessofgrain,cottonandedibleoiltotheotherpolicybanksandsettinguparuralcreditguaranteebam,theAgriculturalDevelopmentBankhasgraduallygoneintoadilemma:themarketizationofgraincirculationhasbeenspedup;thepolicy-basedpurchaseofgrainandstoragehasbeenshrunk;therehasbeenahugesuspenseaccountduetodeficitaccumulatedinthepastyearsandmisappropriatedfunds;asthebusinessofADBChasdwindled,anditspositionasapolicybankhasbeenlowered,,themainproblemsofADBCare:"statebankfortheprocurementofgrain,cottonandedibleoil",ADBC[1]isresponsibleforguaranteeingthesafetyofloans,,peoplefromoutside(includingthemacrocontroldecision-makers)’sstatisticsshowthatbytheendof2001,th,thegrainpurchaseandreservepolicyhasseentwistsandturns,,anagement,,(thefiscalyearforgrainsectorisApriltoMarchofthefollowingyear),’,which,;theother80billionyuanofmisappropriatedfundswasaresultofADBC’sviolationoftheStateCouncilregulations,grantingloansforgrain-tradingfirmstobuycarsandotherconsumergoods,buildhouses,startsidelinebusinesses,,thebank’sbusinesssh,itsscopeofservicehasbeenverynarrow,onlycoveringtheprocurementofgrain,,grainandedibleoilmakeupmorethan80%whilecottononlyaccountsfor15%.,ADBCcanhardlypipwithinthegrainsectorInthepastdecade,thecentralgovernmenthasdemandedthatabalancebemaintainedbetweengrainsecurityandgrainsupplyanddemand,whichshouldbecoveredbya"provincialgovernorresponsibilitysystem".,whichhasadoptedasystemcenteredonadministrativeplanningandsupportedbyaguaranteeofmonopolizedoperationrightandfunds(loansandsubsidies).Thenagamerelationshiphasbeenformedbetweenthecentralgovernmentandtheothergrain-relatedinterestparties(localgovernments,state-ownedgraintradingsystemandthebank).Otheri:firstly,sufficientfundsmustbeofferedtotheimplementationofgrainprocurementandreserveplan,otherwiseyouarenotattachingenoughimportancetoagriculture,farmers’protectionandstabilityofthegrainmarket;secondly,localgovernments,,themoreloansandsubsidieswillbegrantedandthemoreimportantlocalgovernments,,andmoredeficitsandfundmisappropriationarelikelytooccur;thirdly,thecentralgovernmentcanonlyrelyonlocalgovernments,state-o"hungerforfunds".Pressuredbythismechanism,thecentralgovernmenthasincreasedloansandsubsidiesandadoptalaissez-faireattitudeovertheloopholesthathavecausedmajorlosses.ChenDaofuPrivateequityinvestment,whichiscalledPE(PrivateEquity)forshort,referstoakindofinvestmentintonon-listedequityornon-publiclytradedequity(privateequity)feringtoraisefundsfromnon-specifiedpublic,ortakeprivateplacement(non-publicoffering)toraisefundsfromspecificgroup,especial,,inviewofliquidity,transparencyandraisingfunds,,privateequityinvestmentfundsgenerall,privateequityinvestmentfundsincludeventurecapitalinvestment,mergersacquisitions,growthfunds,realestate,,withtheeverboominginternationalPEmarketandhugereturnsfromindividualinvestmentaswellastheappreciationofChinasstockmarketandrealestatevalue,thedemandforcorporaterestructuringand,sPEmarketIn2001and2002,thenumberoflocalventurecapital(VC)institutionsinChinareachedabout300,,thenumberofforeign-investedventurecapitalinstitutionswasabout50annually,,thereisahugegapbetweentheamount,the130localventurecapitalinstitutionsonlyheldaboutUS$470million,butthe45foreign-investedventurecapitalinstitutionsheldUS$,China,localventurecapitalinstitutionsinvestedin168companiesandinvestedUS$190million,butforeign-investedonesinvestedin51companieswithaninvestmentofUS$,localventurecapitalinvestedin83companies,whileforeign-investedonesinvestedin126companies,sarenotobviousandstillremainatthelevelofUS$160million,however,foreign-investedventurecapitalinvestmenthadalreadyreachedUS$730million,nearlyfivetimesthatofthelocalone,theabsolutesuperio,atotalof40privateequityfundswereestablishedinChinesemainlandandUS$,another17PEtobeinvestedinChinamainlandcompletedfund-raisingofUS$;inthesecondquarter,therewere15PEthatcouldmakeinvestmentinmainlandChinaandcompletedfund-raisingwithatotalofUS$alapproachofChina,therehavebeen16IPOwithdrawalcasesamong17PEones,%.Inthefirstquarterof2007,,therewere19withdrawaltransactions,,enterpriseswithdrawingthroughIPOaccountedfor80%,79%,72%,68%and64%,scurrentPEfocusedmoreonthepreliminarylistingstage,,enterprises,suchasMengniu,LiNing,eBay,Dangdang,SINA,Shengda,AsiaInfo,STPandBelle,chooseoverseasmarket(includingHongKong),bytheendof2006,thenumberofChineseenterpriseslistedoverseashadreachedmorethan400,ofwhichenterpriseslistedbyred-chipmodetakeupover80%.Amongthem,in2005,atotalof81companiesgotlistedoverseas,raisingUS$,atotalof86companiesgotlistedoverseas,raisingUS$,drivenbygoodperformanceofinternationalanddomesticPE,capitaltrustscheme,andtheywillcompetemorepositivelyinPEmarketespeciallyduetothefactthattherecent200contractswererevisedtobequalifiedinstitutionalinvestorswithoutlimitationonnumberandlessthan50qualifiednaturalpersons,meanwhile,,secu,expect“ViewsoftheStateCouncilontheReformandDevelopmentofInsuranceIndustry”,insurancecompaniesgotqualifiedfor“carryingoutpilotprojectsconcerninginsurancefundsinvestmentinpropertyassetsandventurecapitalenterprises”.AlthoughtheInsuranceRegulatoryCommissionisstillrelativelycautiousonthisissue,,suchasSino-SwissPartnershipFund,ASEAN-ChinaInvestmentFundandSino-BelgianEquityDirectInvestmentFund,BohaiSeaIndustryInvestmentFund,,variousfinancialinstitutionsinChina,beingaseitheradministratorsorfundholders,ullplayInJanuary2007,approvedbytheStateCouncil,BohaiSeaIndustryInvestmentFundandBohaiSeaIndustryInvestmentFundManagementCo.,an,,theinitiativeofgovernmentsofvariousregionsarefullymobilized,,fourindustryfundsincludingGuangdongNuclearPowerFund,ShanxiEnergyFund,ShanghaiFinancialFundandSichuanMianyangHi-techFund,becamethesecondpiloti,thereemergedmorePEinvestmentinChinastraditionalsectors,thus,bstaclesforPEdevelopmentTheamendedPartnershipBusinessLawwhichwas,theyincluderegulationsoflimitedpartnershipandlimitedliabilitypartnership;secondly,theyallowlegalpersonsorotherorganizationstobepartners;thirdly,theymakeclearthecollectionrulesforpartnershipincometax,whic,Chinasfirstventurecapitalenterpriseorganizedintheformoflimitedpartnership,SouthSeaGrowthVentureCapitalLimitedPartnershipEnterprise,"TheDevelopmentPlanforInnovativeEnterprises”%....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.ByLvGangResearchReportNo004,2006Inthepasttwodecades,ForeignDirectInvestment(FDI)hasmadesignificantcontributionstoChina’seconomicdevelopmentbyincreasingitsindustrialproduction,exports,employme’sdomestictechnologicalcapability(),however,,positiveeffectsofFDIonhostcountries’technologyadvancementaremainlymanifestedintwoways,namelytechnologytransferandtechnologyspillovers(ordiffusion).ThetechnologytransferfromTransnationalCorporations(TNCs)totheirsubsidiariesinChinahasdramaticallyraisedthetechnologylevelofthecountry’smanufacturingsectorinarelativelyshortperiod,butitisgenerallybelievedthatthetechnologicalcapacityofforeign-investedenterprises(FIEs)shouldnotbecountedasthehostcountry’sDomesticTechnologicalCapability(DTC).Besides,thetechnologiesobtainedbyFIEsfromtheirparentcompaniesareforthemostpartthoseembodiedinproductsormachineryratherthanthetechnologicalabilitytodesign,,onlythetechnologicalcapacityoflocalfirmsisregardedasChina’,technologyspilloversmayboostlocalenterprises’,whichreferstotheconnectionsbetweenforeignTNCs’,whentheemployeesofFIEsgotoworkforlocalenterprises,the,wheretheexistenceofFIEsintensifiesmarketcompetitioninthehostcountryandforceslocalfirmstoraiselaborpr,whichmeansthatthead,FDImayalsohavenegativeeffectsonthedevelopmentofhostcountries’,localfirmsmaybecomeheavilydependentonimportedtechnologyandreluctanttoconductindependentResearchandDevelopment(RD).Secondly,withtheiradvantageintermsofbrands,technologyandcapital,FIEsmayachievemonopolisticoroligopolistpositioninhostcountry’smarketandthereforerestrainlocalfirms’:ACross-sectionStudyQuiteafewforeignscholarshaveconductedresearchontherelationshipbetweenFDIandhostdevelopingcountries’identifywhetherthereexistsasignificantrelationshipbetweentheratioofFDIinindustrialsectorsandlocalfirms’,however,’laborproductivityandconcludedthattechnologyspilloversdidexist[1].OthersclaimedthattherehadbeennosignificanteffectsofFDIonthegrowthrateoflocalfirms’everyindustry,butaredependentonthetechnologicalcapacityoflocalfirmsandthemarketsizeofhostcountries[2].MostexistingempiricalstudybydomesticscholarsonF’sinvestigation(2002)on127FIEsinBeijing,Shanghai,ShenzhenandSuzhou,andWangChunfa’sinvestigationonalmost400FIEsinBeijing,Shanghai,Shenzhen,filiatesinChina,,however,’sinvestigationshowedthat58%ofthesampleFIEshavelocalsuppliers,amongwhich69%haveinfluencedtheirlocalsuppliersbysettingupqualitystandardsforthelatter,buyingsharesofthelatter,,morethanhalfofthesampleFIEsinWang’sinvestigationbelievedtheyhavedonelittletoenhanceChina’swithlocalfirms;overtwothirdsofsampleFIEshaveno(1994)hassetupacross-sectionregressionmodeltoid,explanationsofvariablesandhypothesesTheequationisasfollows:、DVORFengFei,WeiJigang,WangXiaomingZhaoYuchuan,,2007InordertoascertainthestateofthetechnologicalinnovationsofChinaslargeandmedium-sizedindustrialenterprises,theResearchDepartmentofIndustrialEconomyoftheDevelopmentResearchCenteroftheStateCouncil,theDepartmentofEconomicConstructionoftheMinistryofFinanceandtheDepartmentofIndustryandTransportoftheNationalBureauofStatisticsconductedajointquestionnairesurveyover2,655enterprisesinsixmajorindustriesincludingpharmacy,generalequipment,specialequipment,transportequipment,electricmachineryandmaterials,andcommunicationsequipment,ogicalinnovationsofChinaedwiththatoftenyearsagoOfthe2,655enterprisessurveyed,%,theinnovationsinthesectorsofpharmacyandgeneralequipmenthavebeenmostactive,%%(Table1).Comparedwiththesurveyconductedin1994bytheDevelopmentResearchCenteroftheStateCouncilandtheNationalBureauofStatisticsinthetwoprovincesofFujianandGansuandwiththesurveyconductedin1996bytheMinistryofScienceandTechnologyandtheNationalBureauofStatisticsoverthetechnologicalinnovationofthelargeandmedium-sizedindustrialenterprisesinthesixprovincesandmunicipalitiesofBeijing,Shanghai,Jiangsu,Guangdong,LiaoningandHarbin,thecurrentsurveyindicatesthatthetechnologicalinnovationsoftheseenterprisesarebasicallyasactive(theratiooftheenterprisesconductingtechnologicalinnovations)astheywere(Table2).Theratiois5percentagepointshigheronaverageinthesectorsofpharmacy,generalequipment,andelectricmachineryandmaterials,and1~5percentagepointslowerinthesectorsofspecialequipment,transportequipment,andcommunicationsequipment,ovationsofChinasindustrialenterprisesindicatesthatabout80%ofthelargeandmedium-sizedindustrialenterpriseshaveconductedtechnologicalinnovationsan,italsorevealsthattheratiooftheenterprisesconductingtechnologicalinnovationshasbeenbasicallyunchangedandh%ofthelargeandmedium-sizedindustrialenters(%)ByLiZuojunResearchReportNo231,’sIndustrializationIndustrializationisinseparablefromresourceconsumption,esinChinaisrankedamongthetopintheworld,,,lessthan40%oftheaveragelevelintheworldor12%,Fujian,ZhejiangandShanghai,,,220cubicmeters,,,andbythenper-capitawaterresourceswillbemerely1,750cubicmeters,andthecount,oraboutone-fifthoftheaverageworldlevel;,%oftheaverageworldlevel,,naturalgasandcoalstandat11%,%and79%oundingofthePeople’sRepublicofChina,thecountry’sGDPexpandedmorethan10times,,China’,accountingfor4%oftheworldtotal,,%oftheworld’stotal(one-thirdwasimported),theconsumptionofcoalaccountedfor31%,theconsumptionofironoresaccountedfor30%(halfwasimported),theconsumptionofsteelaccountedfor27%,theconsumptionofaluminumoxideaccountedfor25%(halfwasimported),andtheconsumptionofcementaccountedfor40%.Energyconsumptionwasmuchhigherthanthatofthedevelopedcountriesandmuchhigherthantheglobalaveragelevel,,China’soutputvalueofunitenergyisequivalenttoone-tenthofthatoftheUnitedStates,(kgce),,theunitoutputvalueinthebroadsenseofenergyconsumptionis5-6timeshigherthanthatindevelopedcountries,,,,andtheunitenergyconsumptionof33majorkindsofproductsis46%,waterconsumptionforevery10,000yuanof’’sindustrialfurnacesis60%,fcoalequivalentperkilowatt-hour,buttheadvancedinternationallevelisonly317gramsofstandardcoal,soChina’%%ofthetotalamountofwatersupplied,,%%,influencedbygrowingdemand,,,in2002,,andin2003,inChinesedemandsforenergybetween2000and2004wouldaccountfor40%oftheworld’"BPStatisticalReviewofWorldEnergy2005"indicatesthatChina’%,Chinaisthetopconsumingcountryintermsofcoal,steelandcopper,andisthesecondlargestconsumingcountryintheworldintermsofoilandelectricity,onlyaftertheUnitedStates,anditsdemandsforenergyandseofasupplyshortageinelectricity,,thenumberofprovincesshortofelectricitysupplyroseto19,,thenumberofprovinceswithashortsupplyofelectricityrosefurtherto24,dustrializationroadofthedevelopedcountries,whenChina’sGDPquadruplesbetween2000and2020,;andifenergyconsumptionmaintainsaparallelpacewiththeeconomicgrowthrate,China’stotaldemandsforp’sfasteconomicdevelopment,eologicalScience,theremainingprovenreservesofoilandgascanonlysupportconsumptionforabout10years,andultimatereservesthatcouldbeexploitedcouldsustainconsumptionforabout30years;existingreservescannotmeetdemandsforthecoming20years;existingreservesofcopperoreplusbasicreservesarenotenoughtosatisfythedemandsforthecoming10years;existingreservesofaluminumoreplusbasicrese0,domesticoutputofironoremightonlysatisfy38%ofdemandandimporting131milliontonsofironorewillbeneeded(about81milliontonsofsteelwillalsohavetobeimported);thedomesticproductionofcopper,plusrecycledcopper(calculatedat200,000tonsofrecycledcopper)willonlymeet20%;thedomesticproductionofaluminumplusrecycledaluminum(calculatedat440,000tonsofrecycledaluminum)couldsatisfy36%,phosphorus,sulphur,,47%ofChineseironores,morethan60%ofcopperoutputand48%ofaluminumoutputwererealizedthroughimportedmaterials,34%ofcrudeoilwasimported,morethan50%oftherawmaterial%,China’simportsofcrudeoilamountedto120milliontons,%overthepreviousyear,andChina’sdegreeofdependenceonoilimportswasabout40%."FactorCombinationSuperiority"forChina’sCurrentIndustrializationProcessAdiscussiononChina’sroadtoindustrializationornewindustrializationisinessenceadiscussiononChina’"moderneconomicgrowth".The"startup"ofindustrializationormoderneconomicgrowthdependsonaseriesofrelatedfactors,suchasmarketdemand,capitalaccumulation,introductionofmodernandcontemporaryindustrialtechnologiesandthelaborforceth’,China’sindustrializationprocesshasreceivedthesupportofsome,earsofthe20thcentury,itwasimpossiblefortheindustrytousetheGlobalPositioningSystem(GPS)helatecomerscancompletealargelysamegrowthprocessatevenlowercostsorwit’suniquefeaturesarethatthecountryhasstrongerdiversityandinclusivenessinutilizingthecatch-upadvantagebecauseithasalargeeconomic"leapfrogdevelopment".Thewishofthelatecomersteristicsof"naturalgrowth".Whenthetechnologyoffiberopticsappeared,thelatecomersdonothavetoworryab"leapfrog"theperiodofindustrializationanddirectlyenterthe"informationage".,steelan,,andanyattempttoabolishthisprocessandpinhopesonthenotionthattheintroductionofnewequipmentandtechnologiescanformconsiderablecompetitivenesswillbeamisunderstandingoftheessenceofcompeti’,’,,larg,Chinahasembarkedonthepathofindustrializationandhasdemonstratedmoretangibleadva,marketadvantageisalsodemonstratedinthemultiplelevelsofthemarket,whichinturnprovideopportunitiesonshipofthelabor’slargestpopulationsizecaninacertaindegreeforma"marketforce"thathasanimportantclink,themutualconstraintbetweenChina’sdoinChina’prioritytothedevelopmentofindustryandespeciallytheheavyindustry,whichhavebeenenforcedforalongtime,havecausedaseriousasymmetryinChina’sstructureoftheprimary,,morethanhalfofthepopulationandlaborf,industrializationmustsharethefruitofdevelopmentthroughthetransferofagriculturalan,thetasksofChina’sindustrializationwillbemoredifficultthananyothercountries.。

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